Hypothesis and Conclusion

Data collection is compulsory when conducting a research study. Inaccurate data can severely impact the results of a study and can lead to invalid results. Research is conducted in order to answer basic questions, such as: why something occurred or what the consequences are after a particular event happens. (Kunselman & Tewksbury, 2008) There are several methods of data collection that can be utilized in order to answer these questions. This paper will identify and describe five scientific methods of data collection, develop a hypothesis, and form a conclusion using two methods of inquiry.
Observation is a technique used in qualitative studies to collect data through direct contact between the researcher and a person or a group of persons without disturbing their natural state. When observing a group the researcher may choose to be a passive observer, participant observer, or an active observer throughout the study. The passive observer is considered the best way to collect data. The researcher remains at a distance and is able to gather data by monitoring and observing the behavior of the individuals in the study without doing anything that would disturb or interrupt the scene. The researcher would write detailed notes based on the observations and will have no interaction with the group. Often times the individuals being studied may not be aware they are being watched or for what reason. Other times the researcher will need to gain access and be accepted by the parties being observed. Participant observation is a method in which the researcher becomes a participant in the activities while conducting observations for the means of collecting supporting data for the research study. The researcher will gather data by documenting field notes, asking other participants open ended questions, and collecting any available documents. This method allows for the researcher to gain information through an insider’s view, but can also disrupt the natural realm of activities and behavior by the studied individuals. As an active participant the researcher is allowed contact with the studied group, but it is limited. During this method of research the researcher engages in the study as though he is a participant. Passively interacting, the observations are made and recorded. The researcher will identify with the group and even pass him off as one of them, but will hold off on full participation in order to avoid disrupting the natural order of the group. Through the means of observation the researcher is able to gain a better mindset of what is happening without relying on outside information.
Interviewing is a technique used to gather data by asking participant’s questions and recording their reaction and answers. “Researchers use interviews to gain in depth understanding of how individuals experience criminal justice and how attitudes, values, and behaviors are shaped.” (Kunselman & Tewksbury, 2008) Interviews provide incite and a deeper understanding of an area of criminal justice that may be unknown or not well understood. Interviews are also very helpful in gathering Intel from individuals that do not feel comfortable speaking in a group setting. Information provided may be sensitive and highly confidential. Interviewees may remain anonymous. (Gill, Stewart, Treasure, & Chadwick, 2008) The interview questions should be designed to gather as much information as possible using open ended questions. The interviewer may want to start off asking easy to answer questions and lead up to more defining questions that spawn sensitivity and emotion. During the interview the researcher will take note of the answers provided, body language, and emotion. Focus groups are more laid back and involve a large group of people that are actively discussing a topic together. The interviewer acts more as a moderator and takes notes during the discussion. There is less control during a focus group and individuals may digress from the subject at hand. Researchers gravitate towards focus groups in order to retrieve more vivid ideas because the participants bounce thoughts off of one another. Interviews and focus groups are a very common way to collect data particularly to access knowledge in areas not amendable to quantitative methods or where depth, insight, and further understanding are required. (Gill, Stewart, Treasure, & Chadwick, 2008)
In quantitative research, sampling is the process of selecting a group of individuals from a pool in which each individual has an equal chance of being selected for the study. Sampling methods include purposive sampling, quota sampling, and snowball sampling. In purposive sampling the researcher will select individuals that match specific criteria that are relevant to a specific question of research. In quota sampling, the researcher may choose participants based on certain characteristics, such as age or gender and that display experience relevant to the research topic. Snowball sampling is a method of purposive sampling used by researchers as a form of recruitment for the study. In this method, former participants act as a social network and refer people form their social circle that meet the criteria to the researcher in order to contribute to the study.

American airlines that add one additional air marshal on each flight are less likely to have terrorist’s takeovers on flight.
Harvard Law, (2015) suggests when conducting a research study the researcher should follow the formulation of the hypothesis, by operationalizing the concepts within it. Data will be collected through interviews of pilots and stewards from five major airlines and current U.S. Air Marshalls. It would be essential to get an inside view on current security measures that are implemented on flight and get a glimpse at how the employees view the success of the airline security. What we need to find out is if there is a need for an additional U.S. Air Marshal on flights. During the research study it would be beneficial for the researcher to initiate contact with the airline and regular passengers, by becoming an active participant in the study. Data collected during the active participant stage would include observations during flight, how the employees interact with passengers, and how the U.S. Marshal identifies and disengages any threats during the flight. The researcher would specifically note any challenges the U.S. Marshal may have encountered in disengaging threats. Additional documentation may be collected on how many threats the airline has each week and what type of flights receive the threats. The conclusion of the study would support the hypothesis and prove that it would be less likely for terrorists to take over a flight with an additional U.S. Marshal on the flight.
There are several ways in which data can be collected and analyzed for the purpose of a research study. Methods include, observation, participation, interviews, focus groups, and sampling. The researcher must choose a method that will work best in supporting the hypothesis. Invalid or distorted resources will hinder the research study and can lead to an unsuccessful conclusion challenging public policy and safety.

Vito, G., Tweksbury, R., & Kunselman, J. (2008). Introduction to Criminal Justice Research Methods: An Applied Approach. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher, LTD.
Gill, P., Stewart, K., Treasure, E., & Chadwick, P. (2008, March 22). Methods of data collection in qualitative research: Interviews and focus groups. Retrieved July 5, 2015, from http://www.academia.edu/746649/Methods_of_data_collection_in_qualitative_research_interviews_and_focus_groups

Collecting Data. (2015). Retrieved July 4, 2015, from http://www.law.harvard.edu/library/empirical-research-services/data.html

The Need for Additional Border Patrol in the United States- Research Methods


Border Patrol has become an increasingly hot topic in the United States.  The borders that separate Mexico and the state of Texas are in need of additional border patrol officers, as illegal immigrants are now on the rise.  Texans believe increased border patrol is a necessity to keep their communities and the country safe.  Thus, this true classical design will test whether adding border patrol officer will have an effect on the passage of illegal immigrants into the United States.  Twelve of the twenty six border crossings in Texas will be randomly selected and will be tested for a 6 month span.   The border crossings in the experimental group will be given additional border patrol officers while the border crossings in the control group will remain with no change in number of border patrol officers.  To determine if the illegal immigrant numbers are affected by the additional border patrol officers, the numbers for both groups will be measured at the beginning of the experiment and after the test is completed and statistical data recorded and published by the Border Patrol Agency.

The need for additional Border Patrol in America

Illegal immigration and customs violations are becoming an increasing issue along the borders of the United States of America.  There is much controversy among government officials, with great concern of the vulnerability of America to “the enemy,” such as ISIS.  Enforcing immigration regulations has been an ongoing issue since the beginning of the twentieth century.  This proposal will identify the challenges with open borders and the inspections that are performed on people and goods entering and leaving the United States.

Review of Literature:


            Chad C Haddal (2010) a specialist in Immigration Policy of the United States of America described border patrol as the first line of defense against unauthorized migration into America.  Haddal also stated that America is vulnerable due to the lack of legislative funding and border patrol officers.  Haddal (2010) reports in 2010 agencies requested $297 million that would be used to hire 1,000 new Border Patrol agents, $37 million for two new unmanned aerial detection systems, $53 million for 160 new Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agents, $6.5 million for 30 new Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) officers, and $6 million for 20 new Customs and Border Protection (CBP) canine teams to improve border enforcement operations along the Southwest border.  There is a strong desire for additional border patrol agents along Mexico and other bordering regions of America.

The Department of Homeland Security (2015) argues that despite the efforts of the agencies responsible for custom check points they remain ineffective without the border enforcement between inspection points.  As the threats become greater, the Department of Homeland Security is trying to get a grip on the issue of illegal immigrants crossing over the borders.  American border patrol has come far from the Mounted Guards assigned to inspection stations yet, the ability to patrol large vast of land are still a concern

Recently there has been a dramatic increase in the number of children migrating over the border in Texas.  Texas Border Patrol agents are limited and cannot keep watch over the large spans of land.  They are in dire need of Federal assistance.  According to news reporter Hannah Fraser-Chanpong of CBS News (2014) Texas has detained over 500 illegals and apprehended as many as 1,400 people a day.  Many of the illegals that came over the border were unaccompanied children.  Another issue that has been brought up to the government and US citizens is the threat of terrorists crossing the borders of Texas.

Recently James O’ Keefe an American filmmaker demonstrated how easy it is for a terrorist to cross over into America from the Mexican border.  In the video O’Keefe crosses over to Texas in a costume that resembles Osama Bin Laden.  No one stopped him, because there was no patrol man in sight for miles.  “I see no border patrol. I see no security,” O’Keefe (2014) said in the video before donning a bin Laden mask. O’Keefe (2014) continued, “Thousands of people have stood in my footsteps right now. They’ve come from South America, Honduras, Guatemala, and they’ve all crossed the border. And if they can cross, anybody can cross.”

There is a commonality in the arguments shared, America is vulnerable to illegal migration and terrorist threats unless there is increased funding in the border patrol and customs agencies.  By adding border patrol and customs officers the entryways to America along bordering countries will be protected and secured.  Additional patrols will put a stop to illegal drug cartels and other dangers coming into the country.

Problem, Theory, Variables, and Hypothesis:

Problem Statement:  The lack of border patrol agents leaves the borders open and vulnerable to illegal migration and terrorist threats.

Theory:   By adding additional border patrol agents, America’s borders will be more secure and will see a dramatic decrease in illegal immigrant’s crossing over onto American soil.

Independent Variable: 1,000 Border Patrol Officers

Indicator: 1,000 Border Patrol Officers

Dependent Variable:  Illegal Immigrants

Hypothesis:  Border Patrol that add an additional 1,000 Border Patrol Officers are less likely to have illegal immigrants than Border Patrol that do not add an additional 1,000 additional Border Patrol Officers.
Population / Sample:

The population for this proposal is 26 border crossings in the great state of Texas, in which illegal immigrants are utilizing to cross over into the United States of America.  The agency has a master list of the 26 border crossings along Mexico and Texas, so a probability sampling strategy will be utilized for this proposal.  This proposal will explicitly use a simple random sample of 12 border crossings from the master list of 26 border crossings will be used (6 for the experimental group and 6 for the control group) will be tested.


Research Design:

True classical design would be best suited for further research into the study of the effects of additional border patrol agents along the borders or America.  By randomly placing an additional 1,000 border patrol agents along America’s borders researchers will collect valuable information that will aide in identifying the additions as a valid solution to tightening up the security along open borders.





Data Collection:


Existing data will be collected for this proposal.  By utilizing reports measuring the number of illegal immigrants crossing the borders versus the number of border patrol officers it is easy to determine the areas that are weakest and need more coverage.  Statistical data reflecting the number of illegal immigrants will be measured before the experiment and 6 months after the experiment.

















Haddal, C. (2010, August 11). Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL32562.pdf

Department of Homeland Security. (2015, January 1). Border Patrol History. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from http://www.cbp.gov/border-security/along-us-borders/history

FRASER-CHANPONG, H. (2014, June 19). Surge in unaccompanied immigrant children pushes Texas border patrol to its limits. Retrieved February 6, 2015, from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/surge-in-unaccompanied-immigrant-children-pushes-texas-border-patrol-to-its-limits/

James O’Keefe crosses US-Mexico border dressed as Bin Laden [Motion picture]. (2014). Http://video.foxnews.com/v/3730174302001/james-okeefe-crosses-us-mexico-border-dressed-as-bin-laden/?#sp=show-clips.

Maxfield, M., & Babbie, E. (2009). Criminal Justice and Scientific Inquiry. In Basics of research methods for criminal justice and criminology (2nd ed., p. 36 and 38). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.